Monday, May 25, 2020

Balancing The Protection Of Refugees With National Security A Critical Analysis Of The Kenya Refugee Act - Free Essay Example

Sample details Pages: 9 Words: 2616 Downloads: 1 Date added: 2019/07/01 Category Society Essay Level High school Topics: Refugees Essay Did you like this example? ABSTRACT. It has become a reality that most refugee situations are found in the worlds most hostile environs. This is due to the continuing violence and persecution of refugees and thus they cannot return to their countries. For over twenty years Kenya has been receiving a large refugee population. The perception of refugee issues has taken a different stance from being a humanitarian issue to a security threat in return this has made the government of Kenya to take the wrong course in seeking to deal with security issues. The analysis of the relationship between the refugee influx in Kenya and insecurity brings out a different perception. The research seek to analyse the role of the government in handling refugee issues versus security concerns, this translates to the aspect of human rights when handling refugee issues. This research used concepts from these theories such as societal security to contribute to knowledge and understanding of the nexus of refugee issues and insecurity. Secondary data was obtained from published scholarly materials, government reports, journals, newsletters and newspapers. Don’t waste time! Our writers will create an original "Balancing The Protection Of Refugees With National Security: A Critical Analysis Of The Kenya Refugee Act" essay for you Create order It is established that criminal groups from the neighbouring countries are responsible for the increase of insecurity in Kenya. They use the large refugee influxes to their advantage, to engage in illegal activities such as trafficking illegal firearms through the porous borders particularly the North of Kenya, which then, are used to commit crime in the country. Refugees, being a vulnerable group, and most of them from Somali, a country that has had conflicts for many years, are blamed for the insecurity. In consideration of all circumstances notwithstanding, Kenya has a mandate: to respect and improve the international refugee instruments of protection while at the same time ensuring security for its citizens. The Government of Kenya has been accused of breaching the human rights of the refugees through its various responses such as the encampment policy, Operation Linda Nchi, forced repatriations, police operations and harassments on the urban refugees, and also the reaction on th e closure of Dadaab camp following a terrorist attack on Garissa University. The Kenyan Government has cited protection of its citizens in the pursuit of its national interests as the basis for its actions and responses. There is therefore the need to strike a balance between obeying international obligations and that of protecting national interests. LIST OF ABBREVIATIONS IRIN Integrated Information Regional Networks UNHCR United Nations High Commissioner for Refugee OAU Organization of African Unity UN United Nations GoK Government of Kenya CHAPTER ONE INTRODUCTION TO THE STUDY The first thing that comes into ones mind when national security is mentioned is the safety of the states citizens if they are not secure then definitely thats an insecure country. On the background I will discuss the status of refugees in Kenya. Describe who a refugee is and the security issues related to refugees in Kenya. Buzan finds human security concept a problematic concept in international security, because to him, human race levels are difficult to construct as referent objects for security. On the other hand, his argument is centred in international state-centric perspective and therefore logically cannot endorse another view of security. Sean Kay defines security as the absence of a threat to the stability of the international system, to countries or to individuals. According to the 1951 Convention Relating to the Status of Refugees under Article 1 (2), refugees are defined as individuals who, owing to a well-founded fear of being persecuted for reasons of race, religion, nationality, membership in a particular social group or political opinion, is outside the country of his nationality and is unable or, owing to such fear, is unwilling to avail himself of the protection of that country; or who, not having a nationality and being outside the country of his former habitual residence as a result of such events, is unable or, owing to such fear, is unwilling to return to it. Towards the end of 1980s, Kenya was reported to be among the leading host of East African origin refugees as a result of an influx of Somali refugees. Since then, Kenya has hosted thousands of refugees from East and Horn of Africa including Southern Sudan, Uganda (during the autocratic rule of Iddi Amin) and Somalia refugees fleeing clashes and subsequent civil wars after the ousting of Said Barre in January 1991 among others. Due to the political instability experienced in her neighboring countries such as Djibouti, Somalia and Eritrea, Kenya has become a destination to most of the refugees fleeing their nations. With insurgency of the militant group, Al-Shabaab, in Somalia, Kenya has been hosting refugees of both genders and age in the camps as they escape unrelenting war in their country. Although the aim of welcoming them was to offer them humanitarian services, security issues have been raised as the authorities think that the camps may harbor those insurgents. Kenya has experienced a spate of attacks believed to have been planned by the terrorist who reside in these camps. Section 14 of the Refugees Act enacted in the year 2006 spelled out the rights of the refugees staying in Kenya. They were needed to enjoy the rights to education, settle anywhere within the borders of Kenya, and the right to seek and work in Kenya. In the 90s many countries experienced political instability, Somalia being a hotbed of terror.This led to migration of refugees, most of them from Somalia into Kenya through the borders. With the large numbers of Somali refugees arriving daily, the Government of Kenya (GoK) could barely provide Water, sanitation, food, and healthcare, which contributed to infants death and increased malnutrition rates. As a result, the Gok could no longer provide humanitarian assistance to the refugees. The early 90s also marked the migration of refugees who came to seek refugee from neighbouring countries such as Sudan . Dadaab is the worlds largest refugee camp and is located in Garissa County, it houses 355,709 registered refugees, 95% of whom are Somalis who fled the country due to conflicts and drought. The number of refugees is, however, thought to be around 500,000. The refugees had to be settled in camps so as to make humanitarian assistance simpler in administering and monitoring them and also likely to lower their chances of threats. Some of them were able to settle in Mombasa, those who had capital started businesses whilst others dealt in black markets that led to sale of counterfeit and illegal goods. There was a policy that exempted the Barawan refugee camps from any form of taxation. Any form of business established and run by these Somalia refugees in these camps thrived as they managed to sell their items at lower prices attracting more buyers. However, most of the locals who had their business and were paying taxes developed resentment toward these Somali refugees The pressure from the local business people was so much that the Gok had to listen to their concerns. A policy was implemented in 1997 that saw the closure of the camps and all the refugees relocated to Dadaab and Kakuma. Some refugees felt it was unfair and they opted to go back to their country regardless of the tension and uncertainty. Until recently a majority of Kenyans had no knowledge that a refugee camp like Dadaab existed. More than 600 refugees originating from Somalia, all residents of East Leigh, were arrested in connection with various attacks. Another search for terrorists happened in 2002 and following that, more than one thousand migrants without permit got arrested . Despite paying a heavy price for standing by the people of Somali, the returns for Kenya have always been bitter. Every time Kenya has toyed with closing the refugee camps in its North Eastern region, the strongest opposition has come from international agencies. There has been a distrust among Kenyans to the Somali refugee as a result of the repetitive attacks, which continues to blossom up to today. Countless number of persons over the years have continued to emigrate against their will because of persecutions by governments and Islamic groups. The government of Kenya has implemented a number of policies including closer the border between Kenya and Somalia in 2001 and the recent intent close of the dadaab camp. Amnesty International has joined the UN and others in urging Kenya to halt its plans to close the worlds largest refugee complex, arguing that forcing the 350,000 Somalis in Dadaab to return home would put their lives at risk and breach international law. Kenya ordered the closure of the camp after members of the Somali Islamist group al-Shabaab attacked Garissa University College on 2 April, killing 148 people. Many of us believe that refugees from Somalia are to blame for the current insecurity in Kenya. As such, the government of Kenya is in a dilemma whether to continue hosting the refugees at the expense of the security of the residents or to withdraw their support. Besides, Kenya has to choose between playing the important humanitarian role of hosting those who flee their countries as result insecurity required internationally and ensuring there are no security threats. However, the main concern is whether the refugees are a threat to the Kenyan national security. This document aims to establish the effect of the Kenyas policy to relax the laws that requires close scrutiny of the migrants to Kenya especially those that come from Somalia on the national security. Also, the aim is to explore the impact of the implementation of stringent domestic and international laws on the Kenyan national security. STATEMENT PROBEM. Terrorist attacks are one of the major problems facing Kenya today. A series of terrorist incidents have occurred in Kenya since august 1998 resulting to a number of deaths. The most recent being that on Garissa university where at least 147 people died following an attack by al-Shabaab militants. When Kenya closed her Somali border in December 2006 as a security concern following the Islamic insurgency and Al Shabaab threats, the then U.S.A Ambassador to Kenya, Michael Rannerberger had this to say: The United States appreciates Kenyas efforts to care for the refugees in Dadaab. The U.S. government also understands that Kenya needs to ensure the security of citizens of North Eastern Province (now County) and control its borders. As a contracting party to the 1969 OAU convention on Refugees however, Kenya is obliged to allow Somalis to cross the border to seek asylum. The 1951 Convention on the Status of Refugees sets no specific requirements for national refugee status determination procedures . Therefore, it is left to each contracting State to establish the procedure that it considers most appropriate and in conformity with its particular constitutional and administrative structure. It is therefore clear that government officials in Africa are caught between their genuine concern for the refugees and their wish to honor international agreements to provide asylum, and the increasingly hostile grassroots response from their own impoverished people in refugee affected areas. It is on this basis that Kenya has set out its national status determination procedures in the Refugee Act 2006. However, the international scope of the 1951 Convention calls for certain common basic requirements which should be met by the determination procedure in each C ontracting State. Most camps are located in hostile areas such as the northern part of Kenya. Refugees are not able to enjoy most of their fundamental rights such as freedom of movement. Kenyan immigration laws prevent them from moving out of their camps and thus they end up being susceptible to police harassment, detention and being charged with unlawful entry if found outside the camps. The refugee situation threatens their self-sufficiency as a result of having left behind most of their assets as they ran away from home. The change of location makes it difficult for them to regain their economic security. However, international humanitarian agencies have over the years been active in providing assistance to refugees. Kenya has experienced a high magnitude of refugees into Kenya as they escape crashes from the countries from her neighbors mostly Somalia after the fall of the government of Somalia in 1991. Various organizations and bodies offer their assistance to the refugees from these camps although they are faced with various challenges in their effort to offer support. Kenya has to agree to host refugees as required by the Refugee convention of 1951 and the OAU convention of 1969 on refugees. Despite the efforts to accord the refugees their right as required by the law, the government has enacted other internal measures to ensure that the migrants do not enjoy right not stipulated in the signed agreement. A perfect example is the policy demanding all refuges to settle in certain designated areas set aside for that purpose. These camps are expected to meet the international refugee camp standards. Most of these refugee camps are located in semi-arid areas with a hot dry climate, without surface water and attractive natural resources to enhance UNHCRs efforts of building self-sufficiency. This situation makes refugees, permanent dependants on UNHCR relief and a constant drain to host countrys resources. Although the government of Kenya recognizes the need to host refugees by signing laws meant to protect them, managing the refugee remains a head ache. In April 2001, thousands of refugees fled to Kenya. The Somalis, the Sudanese and Ethiopian refugees have stayed in Kenya long, due to prolonged conflicts in their home countries. Insecurity in Kenya has been rising since refugees started streaming in, in large numbers. This situation has heightened the refugee burden and caused a lot of concerns in the government institutions mandated with handling security in Kenya. The borders have become extremely insecure. Weiner, observes that, refugees can be a threat to the regime of their home country, to host country, can also pose cultural, social or economic threat and can be used as an instrument to threaten the host or country of origin. Perceived threats have a more significant impact on a states actions than the real threats.The relationship between international refugee flows and national security can be understood as a social construct whereby discourses and practices have shifted refugee flows from a humanitarian idea to a security-oriented idea. The current rise in terrorist activities has been associated with the increasing number of refugees in Kenya. Kenyan anti-terrorist operations have targeted aliens including refugees especially from Somalia Kenya, seen as the source of terrorists it faces. The Governments concerns are that terrorists can camouflage as refugees to enter the country and cover their activities including recruiting from the refugee population. Some groups such as the al-Haramain Islamic Foundation, al-Itihaad which have links with al-Qaeda, were carrying out humanitarian work in Somali refugee camps where they have established close links. Besides AI-Shabaab threats, the other security threat troubling Kenya and linked to Somalia is the piracy threat. This new tactic of hijacking ships and other sea vessels is threatening business and general voyage particularly in the Indian Ocean. Kenya has continued to have a shift in its security policies based on its core national interest being national security and this has been greatly influenced by the influx of refugees and mainly Somali refugees and the insecurity in the country. This study seeks to analyze Kenyas response to the refugee influx and insecurity in the face of its national interests and international legal obligations relating to the protection of refugees. OBJECTIVES. The overall aim of this study is to analyze Kenyas response to the Somali refugee influx based on its national interests and international obligations on the refugees. The specific objectives include: 1. Critically analyse the role of the Government of Kenya in handling refugee issues vs. security concerns. This part is an introduction of how refugees are being perceived by the Kenyan government. In this matter, due to historical and political context, the Somali community plays a significant

Thursday, May 14, 2020

Chaucers Irony - The Canterbury Tales Essays - 1275 Words

Chaucers Irony - The Canterbury Tales Chaucers Irony Irony is a vitally important part of The Canterbury Tales, and Chaucers ingenious use of this literary device does a lot to provide this book with the classic status it enjoys even today. Chaucer has mastered the techniques required to skilfully put his points across and subtle irony and satire is particularly effective in making a point. The Canterbury Tales are well-known as an attack on the Church and its rà ´le in fourteenth century society. With the ambiguity introduced by the naà ¯ve and ignorant Chaucer the pilgrim, the writer is able to make ironic attacks on characters and what they represent from a whole new angle. The differences in opinion of Chaucer the†¦show more content†¦215, 7), we can be fairly certain that these women were far from worthy - in fact, they were more than likely to be practising prostitutes. The word worthy is used again in line 243 to describe the Friar. For any reader of The Canterbury Tales, the veil concealing the irony of the use of this word throughout the book is very thin indeed. Similarly, the Friar is called virtuous (l. 251) when he is clearly not. Chaucer hits the nail on the head by following that with he was the beste beggere in his hous (l. 252) - this insinuates that instead of helping beggars with munificence, the Friar is accustomed to getting money out of people by unscrupulous methods. By saying plesaunt was his absolution (l. 223) he implies that the Friar would disregard sins and readily absolve people for very little penance, should they be willing to make a substantial donation. Chaucer the pilgrim praises the Friar for not wearing threadbare robes and, instead, says he dresses elegantly; dighted lyk a maister or a pope (l. 263). However, while Chaucer perceives this as a positive trait to be proud of, one wonders whether it is not something that says a lot more about the kind of person the Friar is - he is not marked by meekness at all, and dresses with ostentatious extravagance whilst comparing himself to the Pope. Chaucer cunningly uses this technique throughout The General Prologue: making theShow MoreRelatedGeoffrey Chaucers Experiences In the Canterbury Tales Essay1130 Words   |  5 PagesIn the Canterbury Tales, Geoffrey Chaucer describes the journeys and life lessons of thirty fictitious pilgrims. Scholars explain that only one of the thirty pilgrims was indeed Chaucer, but other characters in the Canterbury Tales represent the struggles of Chaucer as well. Although the pilgrims’ tales were pretend, they were based on actual events that Chaucer experienced throughout his lifetime. He represents his own insecurities and flaws throughout the array of the characters’ tales. Situ ationRead More Chaucers Canterbury Tales - Comparing The Pardoners Tale and The Nuns Priests Tale805 Words   |  4 PagesIrony in The Pardoners Tale and The Nuns Priests Tale    Irony is the general name given to literary techniques that involve surprising, interesting,or amusing contradictions. 1   Two stories that serve as excellent demonstrations of irony are The Pardoners Tale and The Nuns Priests Tale, both from Chaucers The Canterbury Tales. Although these two stories are very different, they both use irony to teach a lesson.      Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚   Of the stories, The PardonersRead MoreEssay on Geoffrey Chaucer778 Words   |  4 Pagesdiplomat. Geoffrey Chaucer was born in the early hours of 1340s to John Chaucer, a vintner and assistant to the kings butler. As a boy, he was a leaf to the Countess of Ulster. (Lombardi) Chaucer was the most famous for writing his unfinished Canterbury tales. (Geoffrey Chaucer) He was born in London, only problem is, the exact date and place are unknown. From his writings Chaucer emerges as poet of love, both worldly and heavenly. No information exists about his early education, although withoutRead MoreThe Canterbury Tales : An Analysis Of Medieval Life By Geoffrey Chaucer939 Words   |  4 PagesCanterbury Tales: An Analysis of Medieval Life by Geoffrey Chaucer The Canterbury Tales is strongly considered one of the greatest works in medieval literature. An admirer of Chaucer, and the author of Chaucer and the Fifteenth Century, H.S. Bennett describes Chaucer’s unique style as, â€Å"No detail was too small for him to observe, and from it he could frequently draw, or suggest, conclusions which would have escaped many.† While The Canterbury Tales was originally intended to be an epic poemRead MoreGeoffrey Chaucer View and Change on Judgement968 Words   |  4 Pagessocial aspects during the 1300s which included the church, gender differences, and hypocrisy. He wrote about these problems in a set of tales widely known as The Canterbury Tales. The first is The General Prologue which describes a pilgrimage to Canterbury that many people endure, but on this specific journey, twenty-nine different people travel together to Canterbury. He uses two types of satire to relinquish these opinions, juvenile and horacian. A general d efinition of satire is saying one thingRead MoreUse Of Satire In Canterbury Tales1301 Words   |  6 PagesChaucer’s Satyric Attack (An analysis of Chaucer’s use of satire to reach his intended audience in his Canterbury Tales) Satire is defined as â€Å"the use of humor, irony, exaggeration, or ridicule to expose and criticize peoples stupidity or vices, particularly in the context of contemporary politics and other topical issues† (Oxford). Another term that people would be more familiar with to describe this would be sarcasm. Language can be utilized in a nasty way, especially when wanting to demoralizeRead More The Pardoner from Chaucers Canterbury Tales Essay665 Words   |  3 PagesThe Pardoner from Chaucers Canterbury Tales In Chaucers Canterbury Tales, The Pardoner tells a story in the form of a sermon, an exemplum, to be exact. He intends to teach the congregation that love of money is the root of all evil and that consequences of sin is death. The symbolic function of The Old Man is debatable; is he, for instance Deaths messenger, Death himself, or a satanic figure who tempts, much in the fashion of the Devil as serpent in the Adam and Ever story. TheRead MoreThe Complex Character of the Merchant in The Canterbury Tales1388 Words   |  6 Pagesorder to surprise and convey a specific purpose later on. Chaucer demonstrates this idea in The Canterbury Tales, specifically with the Merchant character. In the General Prologue, Chaucer portrays the Merchant as a respectable character; however, he hints aspects of the Merchants personality that question this respectable image. The Merchant’s entire personality is later revealed in his Prologue and Tale, as it is made evident of his cynical and pessimistic outlook, making him less respectful. InRead MoreGeoffrey Chaucers The Canterbury Tales1030 Words   |  5 PagesGeoffrey Chaucer’s The Canterbury Tales is a collection of several tales that are all told by different characters and all convey different messages. The story presented in the general prologue is that a group of pilgrims is traveling to the shrine of St. Thomas Becket, and during their journey they take turns telling tales and talking about themselves. Chaucer uses the pilgrims to express his beliefs, about religion, marriage, social class, and many other topics. One of the pilgrims is the MancipleRead MoreTones, Moods, and Irony in the Canterbury Tales833 Words   |  4 Pagessetting, theme, and tone. Irony, however, is a tone in which the real meaning is contradicted by the words that were used. The Canterbury Tales by Geoffrey Chaucer is a suitable novel for showing various examples of tone, mood, and irony through the many different characters, their personalities, and their narrations. As far as literary tone goes, it is basically the same as the tone used when verbally speaking. Chaucer balanced the serious and deathly tales with the tales set for comedy. In the

Wednesday, May 6, 2020

The Black Panther Party Was Created Originally In 1966

The Black Panther Party was created originally in 1966 and was initially known as the ‘The Black Panther Party for Self-Defense’ but is now mostly known as the BPP or the Black Panther Party. It was created by Dr. Huey P. Newton alongside five other individuals who were the founding members; Bobby Seale, Bobby Hutton, Elbert Howard, Reggie Forte and Sherwin Forte (David Cunningham 87). The initial mission of the BPP was to act as a police force to oversee the actual police force in Oakland, California, which was the place where BPP was originally created. Later on, as the popularity of the group spread, they developed several factions across America. They comprised of armed citizens, who kept an eye on police interactions and dealings with†¦show more content†¦The original party was extremely Marxist in its orientation, whereas the new one rejects both Maosim and Marxism in favor of what they perceive to be the African American alternatives to different forms of capitalism. The new Black Panther Party continues to identify itself with the original party and its members articulate that they are carrying on the legacy. However, members of the general public alongside important members of the original party view the new party as largely illegitimate. The group has even been sued by the Huey Newton Foundation members, in order to stop this new group from using the name of the original party in their organization’s title. The new party views capitalism as the main issue that it has with the current world order, and says that the solution lies with leading a revolution. However, it does not draw its influenced from Maosim or Marxism, and instead adheres to the Kawaida theory propagated by Maulana Karenga. The main essence of this theory calls for cooperative economics, collective action and black unity. Though who critique the new Black Panther Party say that the group dangerously departs from the original intentions of the party, as it i s blatantly anti-white and creates further divisions in society, rather than encouraging peace and equality.Show MoreRelatedThe Black Panthers For Self Defense1649 Words   |  7 PagesThe Black Panthers, originally named as the Black Panthers for Self-Defense, was an African American revolutionary party that had originated in Oakland, California. It was an organization that was founded by Huey Percy Newton and Bobby Seale in 1966. Not only that, but it was also the largest revolutionary organization that had ever existed. Their purpose was to protect fellow African-American residents from mistreatment from the authorities. During the 1960s, racial injust had spreaded throughoutRead MoreMalcolm X And The Black Panthers1352 Words   |  6 PagesMalcolm X and the Black Panthers both the profoundly affected the goals of the civil right movement. 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Tuesday, May 5, 2020

Genetic Programming Theory and Practice

Question: Discuss about the Genetic Programming Theory and Practice. Answer: Introduction: According to Gregory Smith, (2016), Unemployment is a situation where people are without work and are looking for paid work. Unemployment is measured using the unemployment rate of a country. It throws light on the percentage of people unemployed in a particular country by calculating its percentage in the total labour force. The current unemployment situation in Australia is 5.7 % as in may, 2016. The unemployment data as perceived from Australian Bureau of Statistics (ABS), provides a record of the labour supply details of the company at fixed time intervals. The statistical bureau uses internationally standardised methods and techniques of calculating the unemployment rate of the country. There are some fixed criteria that classifies a person of the country to be declared as unemployed. ABS uses that criteria in order to differentiate the population of Australia as employed or unemployed (6105.0 - Australian Labour Market Statistics, July 2014. 2016). The criteria are as follows Not working for more than one hour in the considered week Actively in search of paid work fro the past four weeks , and , Availability of the person in order to work in the referred week. ABS follows a range of measures along wit unemployment rate of the country, that helps in understanding the extent of underutilised labour supply or underemployment. ABS calculates the unemployment rate according to the international standards of calculating unemployment, which measures the working conditions if people from 15 years of age and above. The three above mentioned criteria can be described further, in order to understand the reason of ABS following the method for calculating the unemployment rate Without work - this criteria is used to differentiate people from those who have work and those who does not. According to ABS, anyone who worked for at least one hour in the referred seven days, must be considered as employed. According to the economic criteria, if the person works for even an hour in the referred week, that work contributes to the economic production, and hence are considered as a part of employment (Diamond, 2013). Labour force statistics are economic indicators and need to be consistent with their economic measures. Socially employment is relatable to the standard of living of the people, which helps in upgrading the social well being of the people. Hence, it is quite appropriate to divide the people between those who have any from of work and those who do not. By employing the one hour method of segmenting the people as employed or unemployed, it enables governments and policy makers to draw on international comparisons. If the hour strategy is not implemented to demonstrate the difference in the employment category of the people, the results are quite inconsistent in nature, because of the behavioural attributes of different people. To help in understanding the unemployment measure of the country, ABS recognizes the impending economic and social impacts of underemployment. Actively seeking work - those people are considered as unemployed who are actively seeking for work or have done so in the past four weeks. People who are searching for jobs portray their willingness to do work and hence, they participate in the labour market. Active job search are taken into consideration . People who are applying for the position of an employee n an organization are willing to offer work for a certain amount of wage. Those people are considered as unemployed while calculating the unemployment rate. As per Truscott Korns (2014), there are people who have given up with the hope of searching for jobs, because they have more probability of not getting a job. These people are discouraged job seekers and are therefore, not considered as unemployed. They come under that pool of labours who would only be accounted as the unemployed when their behaviour towards searching for job changes. Currently available for work this criteria calculates the currently available people for employment. It deals with the short term changes in the labour force. People who are willing to work, but might not be able to work due to certain reasons are taken to be marginally attached to the labour force. Hence, this section measures the availability of the labour force at the current status (Gumprecht, Haslinger Kowarik, 2016). By formulating these three key points, ABS further takes action in order to measure the unemployment rate. It runs a monthly survey of 26000 dwellings along with the various corporate areas throughout Australia (Junankar Kapuscinski, 2013) . The overall data is collected, that represents the sample collection of the Australian people. The respondents are directly not asked about their employment status, in fact they are sorted being unemployed or employed depending upon the questionnaire that has been framed by ABS. ABS scales the survey collected using te most relevant population figures, thereby providing a vivid picture of the whole population. Figure 1 : chart portraying the way in which ABS classifies the people as employed, unemployed or not in the labour force (source : as created by author ) As stated by Elsby, Hobijn Ã…Å ¾ahin, (2013), it is quite important to evaluate the strength and health of the labour force of the country. Unemployment rate provides with a straight calculated percentage which is perceive from a confused data collection method. At some places, the method of collecting data and claiming people as employed or unemployed are not feasible n nature. Unemployment rate provides only the overall scenario of the country. The in depth analysis is not successfully done while analysing the problems of an economy. Unemployment rate only takes those people into consideration who are not working, want to work, and are unsuccessful in grabbing a job at the referenced period of time,. It is compared with the availability of people as a fork force of the country. This method of calculating unemployment rate, results into various loopholes. One of the vital mistake that occurs is that a lot of people who are unable to work but are willing to work, are often missed from being a part of the labour force. Workers who are unable to work or are marginally attached to the labour force, do not get the possibility of being accounted in the statistical record (Kline Moretti, 2013). Another common mistake that is indicated while calculating unemployment rate, is that, a good the unemployment rate does not means that the employment situations of the country is healthy. If it would have been so, then there would have been a rise in the wages of the country. The prospect of having a better environment of the workers depending upon the unemployment rate is quite low. It does not provide the people with the useful information regarding the labour market, as people who belong to the labour force but are unofficially unemployed are not taken into consideration. ABS distinguishes between the unemployed and those who are not in the labour force in an insensitive manner. The current state of unemployment in the country is either under stated or over stated by ABS. During times of recession, when the people would be searching for jobs, they might agree to do part time jobs as a result of the scarcity in full time. Hence, that would make the ABS to consider them as employed. This would result in a much under stated unemployment rate than it is in actual scenario. Not accounting marginal or discouraged worker as unemployed, and accounting for part time workers as employed is on of the major drawbacks of the unemployment rate of the country (Nguyen Nilsson, 2014). Sometimes, the survey that is collected with the help of the questionnaire set by ABS may not be efficient enough to take out the true facts from the people. Reliability over the people in terms of unemployment have always posed a threat. Calculations based o sch unethical record, have provided with a quite over stated results. Some people in spite of being unemployed might be engrossed in some illegal activities that helps them to generate revenues, thereby, if these people are taken as unemployed in the calculation statistics, the unemployment rate would be quite elated than correct rate. Hence, it can be finally concluded that unemployment rate provides with the percentage of unemployed people in a country with respect to its workforce, yet it is quite different from the original scenario of unemployment in a country (Shimer, 2012). ABS calculates the unemployment rate in Australia by suing the old criteria of analysing the data collected from the surveys conducted by the association. Although ABS publishes the standard errors that occurs , yet it is unable to provide with the perfect rate of unemployment. The reason is that , methods that have been used by the organization till now, overlooks various issues that must be kept in mind, while formulating such rates. Hence, unemployment rate formulated is not considered as a good conductor for the true measurement of unemployment in an economy. Reference 6105.0 - Australian Labour Market Statistics, July 2014. (2016). Abs.gov.au. Retrieved 23 September 2016, from https://www.abs.gov.au/ausstats/abs@.nsf/Lookup/25A17C4CDE30FB91CA257D0E001AC57A?opendocument Diamond, D. (2013). Why the realunemployment rate is higher than you think.July5. https://www. forbes. com/sites/dandiamond/2013/07/05/why-the-real-unemploymentrate-is-higher-than-you-think. Elsby, M. W., Hobijn, B., Ã…Å ¾ahin, A. (2013). Unemployment dynamics in the OECD.Review of Economics and Statistics,95(2), 530-548. Gregory, R. G., Smith, R. E. (2016). 15 Unemployment, Inflation and Job Creation Policies in Australia.Inflation and Unemployment: Theory, Experience and Policy Making, 325. Gumprecht, D., Haslinger, A., Kowarik, A. (2016). Austrian LFS Monthly Unemployment Rates.Austrian Journal of Statistics,40(4), 297-313. Junankar, P. N., Kapuscinski, C. A. (2013). Long-term unemployment in Australia: problems of memory and.On the Mysteries of Unemployment: Causes, Consequences and Policies,10, 358. Kline, P., Moretti, E. (2013). Place based policies with unemployment.The American Economic Review,103(3), 238-243. Kroft, K., Notowidigdo, M. J. (2016). Should unemployment insurance vary with the unemployment rate? Theory and evidence.The Review of Economic Studies, rdw009. Kroft, K., Notowidigdo, M. J. (2016). Should unemployment insurance vary with the unemployment rate? Theory and evidence.The Review of Economic Studies, rdw009. Nguyen, K., Nilsson, A. (2014). Home Ownership and Unemployment: A Panel Data Study on Australia. Shimer, R. (2012). Reassessing the ins and outs of unemployment.Review of Economic Dynamics,15(2), 127-148. Truscott, P., Korns, M. F. (2014). Explaining Unemployment Rates with Symbolic Regression. InGenetic Programming Theory and Practice XI(pp. 119-135). Springer New York.

Saturday, April 11, 2020

Attacks on Private Hire Taxi Drivers in Oldham Essays

Attacks on Private Hire Taxi Drivers in Oldham Essays Attacks on Private Hire Taxi Drivers in Oldham Essay Attacks on Private Hire Taxi Drivers in Oldham Essay For three days in May 2001 the eyes of the nation, and a sizable part of the world, were on Oldham. The town whose main claim to fame was that it was once the cotton spinning capital of the world was thrust into the limelight for the less worthy reason that it was the scene of the worst racially motivated riots in fifteen years. (Ritchie, 2001) Since the riots of May 2001 there has been an increased occurrence of violent attacks on taxi drivers being reported in both local and national media, these attacks culminated in January 2003 in the murder of Izra Hussain, an Asian private hire taxi driver and father of six. The aim of this report is to try to find out whether these attacks are racially motivated. In the Dictionary of race and Ethnic Relations (1984) E. E. Cashmore defines prejudice as learned beliefs and values that lead an individual or group of individuals to be biased for or against member of particular groups. Prejudice is therefore about what people think and is not necessarily translated into actions. Discrimination, on the other hand, is about actions. Cashmore defines it as the unfavourable treatment of all persons socially assigned to a particular category. Both prejudice and discrimination are often based on stereotypes about particular groups of people. In order to research these attacks we are going to use various methods, making sure that we follow the three most prominent criteria for the evaluation of social research, which are according to Bryman (2001) are reliability, replication and validity. Reliability is concerned with the question of whether the results of a study are repeatable. Reliability according to Bryman is very close to another criterion of research- replication and more especially replicability. It sometimes happens that researchers choose to replicate the findings of others. The final and in many ways the most important criterion of research is validity. Validity is concerned with the integrity of the conclusions that are generated from a piece of research. With these criteria in mind, the following methods of collecting data for this report have been chosen. The main body of data has been gained from a semi-structured interview using a mixture of open and closed questions. A structured interview entails the running of an interview schedule by the interviewer. The aim is for all interviewees to be given exactly the same context of questioning. For the purpose of this research the interviews were conducted in person by visiting the interviewees in their work situation. The sample for this research was taken from private hire taxi drivers, figures from Oldham Metro Councils licensing Department (2003) state that there are approx 800 drivers working and that they are split roughly 60% Asian and 40% UK/White. Given these figures, 20 respondents, 12 Asian and 8 UK/White were chosen. This meant going to various private hire taxi offices in the Oldham area. In a personal interview, the interviewer may respond to signs, such as puzzlement or unease, by restating the question or attempting to clarify the meaning of the question. This may entail prompting, when an interviewer suggests a possible answer to a question to the respondent. Bryman (2001) states that prospective respondents have to be provided with a credible justification for the research in which they are being asked to participate and for giving up their valuable time. The results from the interview were noted by writing down the respondents replies. To back up our main body of research, a quantitative content analysis of local newspaper and taxi trade magazines. In analysis we sought to quantify the contents in terms of predetermined categories. In this case we looked for individual stories, which portrayed physical assaults on taxi drivers, by counting individual stories and then analysing the nature of assault and the types of perpetrators involved. The local newspaper archive was used and sources from the last 2 years were analysed. The analysis of the taxi trade magazine, which was carried out on-line, was used to see if these attacks took place nationally. Bryman (2002) states that content analysis is a very transparent research method; it can allow a certain amount of longitudinal analysis with relative ease. Pawson (1995) argues that formal content analysis is not without its problems. Simply counting the number of items tells you nothing about their significance, and the meanings of the text or images being studied can only be implied. Our research found that out of 20 respondents, 12 where of Asian, Pakistani or Bangladeshi descent, and 8 described themselves as of White UK descent. The age of the respondents was between 25 and 65. Of the 20 respondents 17 were married, 2 were co-habiting and one was single. It should be noted that all of the Asian respondents were married and all had children. All the drivers interviewed described themselves as self-employed private hire taxi drivers. They worked on average 60 hours a week; this was usually split between days and evenings. The evening work was mostly on Friday and Saturday. Shifts of 12 hours were not unusual at busy times. Oldham is a mixed urban and rural town on the edge of the West Pennines, most of the private hire taxi offices (22 in all) are situated in the town centre, but the drivers cover the whole borough. When asked about attacks on private hire driver 19 out of the twenty respondents reported that they had suffered some form of attack or abuse.

Tuesday, March 10, 2020

Water Pollution Explained

Water Pollution Explained Water pollution is when water contains contaminants. In the context of environmental science, a contaminant is usually a substance which can be harmful to living things like plants or animals. Environmental contaminants can be the result of human activity, for example a by-product of manufacturing. However, they can also occur naturally, like radioactive isotopes, sediment, or animal waste. Because of how general the concept of pollution is, we can assume that polluted waters have been around even before humans were here. For example, a spring might have high sulfur levels, or a stream with a carcass in it would have been unfit for other animals to drink from. However, the number of polluted streams, rivers, and lakes multiplied rapidly as the human population increased, agricultural practices intensified, and industrial development spread. Important Sources of Pollution A number of human activities lead to water pollution harmful to aquatic life, aesthetics, recreation, and human health. The main sources of pollution can be organized in a few categories:   Land use. We have a heavy impact on the land: we cut forests, plow grasslands, build homes, pave roads. Land use activities intercept the water cycle during precipitation events and snowmelt. As water flows over the land and into streams, it picks up anything small enough to be carried away. Vegetation does an important job of holding back organic and mineral components of the soil, but clearing that vegetation means a lot of substances make it into streams, rivers, wetlands, and lakes, where they become contaminants.Impervious surfaces. Most man-made surfaces cannot absorb water like soil and roots would. Rooftops, parking lots, and paved roads allow rain and snowmelt runoff to flow with great speed and volume, picking up along the way heavy metals, oils, road salt, and other contaminants. The pollutants would otherwise have been absorbed by the soil and vegetation, where they would have been naturally broken down. Instead, they concentrate in runoff water, overwhelming the streamsà ¢â‚¬â„¢ capacity to process them. Agriculture. Common agricultural practices, like exposing soils to the elements, using fertilizers and pesticides, and concentrating livestock, routinely contribute to water pollution. Nutrient runoff, mostly phosphorus and nitrates, leads to algae blooms and other problems. Mismanagement of farm soils and livestock can also lead to significant soil erosion. Soil picked up by rain makes its way into streams where it becomes sediment pollution, with harmful consequences on aquatic life.Mining. Mine tailings are the piles of rock discarded after the valuable portion of the ore has been removed. Tailings can leach to surface and ground waters large amounts of contaminants, some occurring naturally in the waste rocks, others a product of the ore processing methods. Mining by-products are sometimes stored in impoundments as a slurry or sludge (for example, coal ash), and failure of the dams holding back these artificial ponds can lead to environmental disaster. Abandoned coal mines are a notorious source of acid mine drainage: water in flooded mines and in contact with mine tailings sometimes oxidizes sulfur-bearing rocks, and turns extremely acidic. Manufacturing. Industrial activities are a major source of water pollution. In the past, liquid waste was dumped directly into rivers, or put into toxic waste barrels which were then buried somewhere. Those barrels then deteriorated and leaked, resulting in heavily contaminated sites we are still dealing with today. In the United States, regulations now severely limit these practices, notably the 1972 Clean Water Act, the Resource Conservation Recovery Act of 1976, and the Superfund Act of 1980. The release of toxic materials at industrial sites continues, either at levels below regulatory thresholds, or simply illegally. In addition, accidental spills occur all too frequently – for example with the recent West Virginia MCHM spill. In developing countries, pollution from industrial sources is still widespread and dangerous to human and ecosystem health.Energy sector. The extraction and transportation of fossil fuels, notably oil, is prone to spills that can have long lasting e ffects on aquatic systems. In addition, coal-fired power plants release large amounts of sulfur dioxide and nitrogen oxides in the air. When those contaminants dissolved in rain water and enter waterways, they significantly acidify rivers and lakes. Coal plants also emit mercury, a very toxic heavy metal, polluting lakes throughout the world and making fish unsafe to eat. The production of electricity through hydropower produces much less pollution, but still has some deleterious effects on aquatic ecosystems. Household practices. There are numerous actions we can take every day to prevent water pollution: avoid lawn pesticides, slow rainwater runoff, collect pet waste, properly dispose of household chemicals and medicine, avoid products with microbeads, attend to oil leaks on the mower or car, have the septic tank maintained and inspected.Thrash. A lot of trash persists in the environment, and plastic matter breaks down into harmful microplastics. Are Contaminants Always a Substance? Not always. For example, nuclear power plants use vast amounts of water to cool down the steam generator by the reactor and used to spin the turbines. The warm water is then released back into the river it was pumped from, creating a warm plume that affects downstream aquatic life.

Saturday, February 22, 2020

Has Wikipedia influenced the way we gather information Research Paper

Has Wikipedia influenced the way we gather information - Research Paper Example These changes have helped us to get better and better. Mobile phone can be claimed to be the icon of Information Technology as today globally there are over 6 billion mobile connections and around 4 billion of these belong to unique consumers, it can be implied that two out of three people on earth have cell phone. The cell phone subscribers are increasing rapidly. SMS is a very popular service that cell phone users avail, in 2012, 2.19 trillion SMS were sent and received by the American population (Wireless Federation, 2013). In the course of communicating through short messages a surprising phenomenon has surfaced. It is that SMS - supposedly the cheapest mode of communication as a result of which this modality of communication is most popular amongst young subscribers, especially students. An extract from a school girl’s SMS is: "My smmr hols wr CWOT. B4, we used 2go2 NY 2C my bro, his GF & thr 3 :- kids FTF. ILNY, it's a gr8 plc." [3] †¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦.(BBC, 2003) It may be c hallenging for a sexagenarian to comprehend this message, few may take it as an output from a web based transliteration tool. A closer look at the text being exchanged by students comprise of shortcuts, homophones, omissions, emoticons, typos, native language, initials, acronyms, simpler tenses as well as verbs and the punctuation has been used in a different form. In this information age, this new choice of communication has come up and it has many names, like txt talk, txtese, txto, chatspeak, txt lingo, SMSish, txtslang etc. The young children and students use a different type of language while texting, the fact is visible from the above cited text. Accordingly, numerous academicians, experts and others have echoed their concerns about the possibility of language deterioration. Extant peer-reviewed literature published on research carried out by researchers in Bangladesh, Pakistan, Malaysia posits that textese is popular not only in developed countries but it is equally popular i n developing countries (Ahmad, Nurullah & Sarkar, 2010) (Aziz, Shamim , Aziz & Priya , 2013) (Jungesj, 2011). Textese is gradually showing up as a disruptive medium, it has not only entered the social networking domain but is starting to topple email writing. With the kind of acceptance and extent of adoption, linguists are intrigued at the way the communication through texts is impacting the language of the users. As per linguists, textese has a convention but it is not structured and it is less sophisticated. The reason that language in textese has evolved is that because the convention is very user friendly, to the extent that typing a textese appears to be as east as talking. Another good reason for the popularity of textese could be that a user can key in the message at very high speed. In other words, because of the stipulated length of text that is 160 characters – a user can pack lot more information when compared with grammatically correct English. Furthermore, a dee per analysis of textese indicates that it has numerous short-forms like LOL – Laugh Out Loud, ROTFL – Rolling On The Floor Laughing. A specific website lists over 1100 smileys and acronyms those form a part of textese. Expressions like LOL can be seen as a marker of accommodation, some call these as pragmatic particles as they are